Kidney stones

Kidney stones are one of the most painful disorders that affect humans. Kidney stones are solid masses of mineral salt deposits that are normally filtered through the kidney and emptied via urine. Urine has a natural substance, which dissolves these minerals, thereby preventing them into becoming solids or calculi. Sometimes due to dehydration, these salts don’t get dissolved and crystallization takes place. It grows large enough to obstruct the renal ducts or stuck in the uterus, causing sharp and severe pain in the urinary tract. Untreated, kidney stones can cause renal failure.


The term literally means “a running through” and is applied to frequent passage of unformed motions of loose consistency. There are many causes with one common physiological factor of excessive peristaltic movement. General causes include unsuitable food, excess of alcohol, unripe fruit, chemical irritants, oral antibiotics, poisons & infections. Local causes include gastric disturbances, gastro-enteritis, viral infection, inflammation of small and large intestines and ulcerative colitis.

There could be serious factors like typical fever, cholera, food poisoning, cancer of colon, and disorders of pancreatic secretion. These are to be differentiated from general & local causes mentioned above.

Another way to classify is as follows :

    • (a) Acute diarrhea is usually due to dietetic indiscretion, food poisoning, infection such as bacillary dysentery, or an exacerbation in one of the causes of chronic diarrhea.
    • (b) Chronic diarrhea occurs :
    • (1) After operations such as gastrectomy and vagotomy.
    • (2) From lesions of the small intestine such as regional ileitis and the malabsorption syndromes.
    • (3) In diseases of the colon, such as carcinoma, diverticulitis, amoebiasis and ulcerative colitis.

Apart from alimentary disorders such as the above, chronic diarrhea may be due to general causes, such as thyrotoxicosis or anxiety neurosis.


Hypertension is present if a patient’s average blood pressure is higher than 140mm Hg systolic and higher than 90 mm Hg diastolic.

Hypertension is the presence of an elevated blood pressure that places patients at increased risk for target organ damage in several vascular beds including the retina, brain, heart, and kidneys. It is important to note the presence of other cardiovascular factors (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, cigarette smoking, obesity). Hypertension is common condition and essential hypertension accounts for approximately 90% of these cases. The remainder is affected with secondary hypertension caused by renal parenchymal disease, renovascular disease, pheochromocytoma, Cushing’s syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and coarctation of the aorta. Recent alcohol consumption and medication such as oral contraceptives, appetite suppressants, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents and exogenous thyroid hormones may affect blood pressure.